PubMed is a platform that indexes journal articles and more back to 1947. It covers the areas of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, preclinical sciences, and related areas. PubMed is developed and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), both at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD. As of December 2020, PubMed contains over 30 million records. PubMed is a platform that contains MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and additional PubMed records.
Use Clinical Queries to enable pre-made filters applying to different clinical research areas. Results are delineated into clinical studies, systematic reviews, and medical genetics. Enter your search exactly as you would in the PubMed search box.
For more information, see:
Use Journals in NCBI Databases to limit your search to a specific journal or to find out more information about journals indexed in MEDLINE. text
Use the Single Citation Matcher to find citations in PubMed. You may enter or omit any field.
Searchers at the National Library of Medicine have created search filters for multiple common topics. See and enable them on the PubMed Special Queries page.
[mesh:noexp]next to the search term, e.g.
neoplasms [mesh:noexp]. See next page for additional information on no explode.
MeSH terms can be made more specific by the addition of correlated or free-floating subheadings.
neoplasms/diet therapy. See abbreviations of MeSH subheadings, which can also be used. (MeSH Subheadings).
Hypertension/diagnosis [mesh] OR Hypertension/drug therapy[mesh].
Keywords can be generated by:
You can use filters to narrow your search results by article type, text availability, publication date, species, language, sex, subject, journal category, and age. See more on Filters on PubMed's Help guide.
Surround phrases with double quotes to search as a phrase to use a more specific search with more precision, and not as disparate words, which will result in a more sensitive search with higher recall. See more on Phrase Searching on PubMed's Help guide.
In PubMed you can use a
* at the root of a word to find multiple endings. For example:
Note: In New PubMed, you can now truncate a phrase inside quotes.
"catheter infection*" will return catheter infections. See more on on Truncation on PubMed's Help guide.
Use search field tags to specify in which field the database queries for the search term. In PubMed, first type the search term and then the search field tag in brackets. e.g. Cardiology [tiab] searches for cardiology in the title and abstract.
To save searches and create alerts in PubMed, you must first create an account.
Create alertunderneath the search box. From here you can create a search alert or save your search strategy.
*NLM is changing the way you need to log into NCBI in 2021. Information and updates can be found in NCBI Insights.
If you would like to practice comprehensive searching in PubMed, use the links below to access PubMed, and the three worksheets to achieve steps within the search process. See also the National Library of Medicine's Training Module on Using PubMed in Evidence-Based Practice.